Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
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IMPORTANT UNITS OF MEASURE, SYMBOLS AND TERMS USED IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
UNIDADES DE MEDIDA, SÍMBOLOS Y TERMINOLOGÍA IMPORTANTES UTILIZADOS EN FISIOLOGÍA VEGETAL
Raúl Nieto-Ángel; Daniel Nieto-Ángel; Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.1999.09.062

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HUSK TOMATO (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) PRODUCCIÓN BASED ON IRRIGATION VOLUME AND PLASTIC MULCHING
PRODUCCIÓN DE TOMATE DE CÁSCARA (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.)(Physalis ixocarpa Brot.) BASADO EN LÁMINAS DE RIEGO Y ACOLCHADO PLÁSTICO
Rutilo López-López; Ramón Arteaga-Ramírez; Mario A. Vázquez-Peña; Irineo Lorenzo López-Cruz; Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.011

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  • Among the main problems that limit production and productivity of husk tomato are the availability and high cost of irrigation water, as well as inefficient use of this resource. Current production systems are not efficient due to, among other reasons, the large volumes of water supplied. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of different irrigation water treatments and plastic mulching on husk tomato crop production in a fertigation system and also to optimize the irrigation water in order to improve crop productivity. The experiment consisted of a complete randomized design with three replicates, with a 5 x 2 factorial treatment design consisting of five levels of irrigation: 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 % of reference evapotranspiration calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation, and two levels of plastic mulching, with and without. The results indicate that there were significant differences between mulching and irrigation levels for fruit yield and water productivity. Using plastic mulching increased fruit yield by 56.6 %, and irrigation water efficiency by 57.3 %; water use was reduced 60 % by calculating the required water volume with the Penman-Monteith equation.

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF VEGETABLES IN GREENHOUSES: BEYOND A CONTEMPLATIVE VIEW OF CROP DYNAMICS
MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS DE HORTALIZAS EN INVERNADERO: TRASCENDIENDO LA CONTEMPLACIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE CULTIVOS
Irineo Lorenzo López-Cruz; José Armando Ramírez-Arias; Abraham Rojano-Aguilar

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2003.08.050

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  • The purpose of this paper is to describe state of the art of mathematical models (explanatory or mechanistic models) for vegetable greenhouse crops. An overview of the main characteristics of some models proposed in the scientific literature for tomato, cucumber and lettuce crops is presented. Furthermore, the most important applications of the greenhouse crops models are discussed. Finally, some issues which have not yet been considered by modelers of greenhouse horticultural crops around the world are described and analyzed.

PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L.) HYBRIDS GROWN HYDROPONICALLY
FENOLOGÍA Y RENDIMIENTO DE HÍBRIDOS DE PIMIENTO MORRÓN (Capsicum annuum L.) CULTIVADOS EN HIDROPONÍA
Esaú del Carmen Moreno-Pérez; Rafael Mora-Aguilar; Felipe Sánchez-Del Castillo; Víctor García-Pérez

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2011.17.041

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  • The research was carried out under a greenhouse in Chapingo, State of Mexico, during 2007. Phenological behavior and fruit yield of thirteen bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) hybrids grown hydroponically were assessed. The hybrids Cyrus, Conan, Gandal, Grandísimo, Itzel, Orión, Triple 4 and Triple Star produce red fruits; Diego, Cadia, Giacomo and Moonset have yellow fruits, and Magno orange ones. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used, and the experimental unit consisted of six plants (1 m2). Phenolo¬gical and morphological variables were recorded, plus fruit yield and its components. The hybrid Giacomo was early, and its cycle, from transplant to the beginning of the harvest, lasted 91 days, while Grandísimo was a late hybrid, requiring 117 days to fulfill its life cycle. On average, seedling emergence occurred 16 days after sowing (das) for all hybrids evaluated, while the first, second and third true leaves appeared at 37, 47 and 61 das, respectively, and the first, second, third and fourth bifurcations occurred at 10, 17, 25 and 30 days after transplanting (dat), respectively. Phenological phases such as flowering, fruiting, fruit color change and beginning of harvest occurred at 33, 44, 93 and 102 dat, in each case. The Orión hybrid had the best fruit quality, averaging 178.7 g in weight, 9.2 cm in width and 7 cm in length, achieving the standard of top-quality fruits in the Mexican market. In addition, Orión had the greatest yield per plant (1.9 kg) and per area (11.5 kg.m-2); the Magno hybrid showed the lowest yield (5.7 kg.m-2).

IDENTIFICATION OF ALKALOIDS IN THE INFLORESCENCES OF Erythrina Americana Miller
IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ALCALOIDES EN LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Erythrina Americana Miller
S. Sánchez-Herrera; Ramón M. Soto-Hernández; G. Kite; Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2000.10.067

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  • Recent research has shown that the seeds of Erythrina americana Miller are high in proteins and an adequate content of lipids, giving it possibilities as a human food. The E. americana flowers and seeds are known in Mexico as "Colorín", and are highly appreciated for their flavor; in some countries they are used as a protein complement. In several regions of Mexico, traditionally the flowers are cooked, but the seeds are not consumed because the presence of alkaloids makes them highly toxic. The alkaloids affect the peripheral nervous system: muscular relaxation and a strong sedative effect on the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the alkaloid content in some parts of the flowers (calyx and corolla) and where the most toxic alkaloids are located. By liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the extract, it was observed that alkaloid content was higher in the calyx than in the petal, although the toxic alkaloids a- y b-erythroidine were detected in both tissues.

NUMERICAL TAXONOMY DENDROGRAM CONSTRUCTION USING THE DISTANCE COEFFICIENT c2: A REVIEW
CONSTRUCCIÓN DE DENDROGRAMAS DE TAXONOMÍA NUMÉRICA MEDIANTE EL COEFICIENTE DE DISTANCIA c2: UNA REVISIÓN
Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín; Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez; Raúl Nieto-Ángel; Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2003.07.046

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  • The most used dissimilarity coefficients in numerical taxonomy are those corresponding to different taxonomical distances. In the present paper we performed a review about the distance c2. This distance has advantages over the Average or Euclidian taxonomical distance, because it allows to perform non-exact hypothesis testing to determine existing statistical equality between pairs of operative taxonomical units obtained from the probabilistic distribution of c2 with one degree of freedom, and it uses the significance level (a) as a similitude measure. The cutting height for a dendrogram, obtained in a cluster analysis based on this matrix can be determined; thus, the researcher, when choosing the desired a level for placing groups together, does not need to calculate other dendrogram partitioning tests such as the cubic clustering criterion or Hottelling’s pseudo statistic t2. To illustrate the advantages of the c2 distance, compared to the Euclidian and Manhattan distances, we show an example with hawthorn genotypes (Crataegus spp.) using cluster analysis validated with canonical discriminant analysis. We found that the c2 distance was the best option.

PLANT HEAT ZONES OF MEXICO
ZONAS DE CALOR DE PLANTAS DE MÉXICO
L.E. Giddings; M. Soto-Esparza

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2004.02.017

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  • A Plant-Heat Zone Map of Mexico is presented, equivalent to the “Plant Heat-Zone Map” of the United States of America (USA). It presents the average number of days per year with maximum temperature over 30 °C (86 °F). Its principal use is to evaluate the potential for cultivating an ornamental plant in a given locality, as does the corresponding USA map, prepared by the American Horticultural Society. In an electronic form it may also be used for calculating potential distributions of wild plants. It was derived from data in the Eric II CD-ROM, which contains daily and monthly records for a large majority of Mexican meteorological stations. Data for individual stations were analyzed for the number of days over 30 °C per year, and average values were compiled. Stations with fewer than 20 years were eliminated, as were years with fewer than 360 days of data in a year. A comprehensive effort eliminated errors of various kinds. The corrected data were used to form a heat-zone map of all of Mexico using kriging (an interpolation technique). Large format maps and electronic data are available from the authors.

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN CONTAMINATED SOILS USING PIGWEED (Amaranthus hybridus L.) AND MYCORRHIZA
FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L.) Y MICORRIZAS
H. G. Ortiz-Cano; Ricardo Trejo-Calzada; Ricardo David Valdez-Cepeda; Jesús Guadalupe Arreola-Ávila; Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Bernardo López-Ariza

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2009.15.022

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  • Mining and metallurgy activities practiced in the Comarca Lagunera in Mexico have contaminated soil, air and water. The use of plants is one strategy for the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, few studies on remediation with plants of arid and semiardid zones in association with mycorrhizae have been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) to extract Pb and Cd by adding a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizae (Entrophospora columbiana, Glomus intraradices, G. etunicatum, G. clarum) to the substrate contaminated with Pb or Cd. Two experiments, one for each metal, under the basis of an experimental design with randomized blocks with four replications were carried out. The first experiment considered three doses of mycorrhizae (0, 2.5 and 5.0 g·kg-1) added to the soil contaminated with 300 mg·kg-1 Pb. In the second experiment, we used the same quantities of mycorrhizae added to soil contaminated with 15 mg·kg-1 Cd. The concentration of Pb and Cd in root, leaf and stem at 65, 95 and 125 days of age of the plant were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate that the addition of mycorrhizae significantly increased the concentration of Pb and Cd in root, stem and leaf. The concentrations of Pb and Cd were increased significantly as the age of the plant increases.

LEAF LINEAR MEASUREMENTS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE ESTIMATION OF LEAF AREA IN BASIL (Ocimun basilicum L.)
MEDICIONES LINEALES EN LA HOJA PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN NO DESTRUCTIVA DEL ÁREA FOLIAR EN ALBAHACA (Ocimun basilicum L.)
F.H. Ruiz-Espinoza; B. Murillo-Amador; José Luis García-Hernández; E. Troyo-Diéguez; A. Palacios-Espinoza; A. Beltrán-Morales; F. Fenech-Larios; S. Zamora-Salgado; P. Marrero-Labrador; A. Nieto-Garibay; O. Cruz-de la Paz

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.2005.04.026

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  • We obtained statistical models for estimating and predicting leaf area (AF) based on leaf length (L) and width (A) of basil (Ocimun basilicum) under desert climatic conditions, irrigation regime, and organic management in the meridional area of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. We took 500 randomized leaf samples (n=500) at three ages (young, intermediate, mature), from one hectare. The measurements obtained were correlated to generate simple linear (leaf area as a function of length and width) and multiple linear (as a function of length by width) regression equations. Leaf area positively correlated with leaf length (r=0.89) and width (r=0.97) and with width by length (r=0.97). All calculated equations significantly explained (P<0.0001) AF (variation amplitude among models with R2=0.70-0.93). These results show the feasibility of estimating AF in a predictive and reliable way from easily obtained measurements without destruction of the plant; additionally, high R2values do not necessarily indicate a good model fit for this purpose. As a whole, the best model was the multiple linear one that included length by width (R2=0.93).

Catalogue of the more common ornamental plants for the green areas of  the Valley of Mexico
Catálogo de plantas ornamentales más comunes de las áreas verdes del Valle de México
V.E. Corona-Nava; P. Rosas-L.; H. A. Chimal; G. Hernandez-A.

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchsh.1993.09.061

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  • An inventory of the more common ornamentals used in public and private gardens was made for the Valley of Mexico. 344 species were recorded, 121 native to Mexico and 223 exotics. Some samples are listed according to the biological form and use in gardening; common and scientific names, the family and their origin are mentioned.