Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
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Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura
Volume 25, issue 2, May - August 2019


West Indian avocado agroforestry systems in Montes de María (Colombia): a conceptual model of the production system
Sistemas agroforestales de aguacate antillano en Montes de María (Colombia): un modelo conceptual del sistema de producción
Oscar Burbano-Figueroa

Received: 2018-09-19
Accepted: 20149-02-02
Available online: 2019-04-29 / pages 75-102
  • Montes de María is a subregion of the Colombian Caribbean made up of 15 municipalities in the states of Bolívar and Sucre. This subregion includes the plain zone bordering the Magdalena River, the coastal zone and the mountainous zone, the last of which is the main producer of West Indian avocado (Persea americana var. americana) in Colombia and groups more than 1,500 agricultural production units. West Indian avocado is produced in agroforestry systems in association with cocoa and yam plantations. In the last decade, a decrease in the avocado cultivated area associated with the occurrence of plant wilting symptoms has been observed. Multiple efforts have been made by different stakeholders in the region with the purpose of collecting information to understand the loss of cultivated areas and implement strategies to manage the production system. The aim of this review is to present an overview of avocado agroforestry production systems in Montes de María through conceptual models that allow identifying factors, components and relationships among components of the production system. The proposed conceptual model can be easily expanded to include new relationships or to describe existing ones in mathematical terms, allowing the development of probabilistic simulation models.

Physicochemical quality parameters in guava fruit with presence of larvae of Conotrachelus dimidiatus (Champion) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Parámetros fisicoquímicos de calidad en frutos de guayaba con presencia de larvas de Conotrachelus dimidiatus (Champion) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Haidel Vargas-Madríz; Alejandra Barrientos-Martínez; Oscar Cruz-Alvarez; Ma. Teresa Martínez-Damián; Antonio Talavera-Villareal

Received: 2018-09-28
Accepted: 2019-03-01
Available online: 2019-04-29 / pages 103-112
  • This research aimed to evaluate some physicochemical quality parameters in guava fruit with presence of Conotrachelus dimidiatus (Champion) in larval stage. A completely randomized experimental design with 15 and 24 replicates was established. The weight, firmness, diameter, length, color, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C in fruit of guava variety Media China were determined. The presence of C. dimidiatus larvae significantly decreased fruit weight, length and equatorial diameter, presenting values of 20.73 g, 37.96 mm and 31.36 mm, respectively. Vitamin C content decreased from 11.71 to 2.80 mg∙100 g-1. The growth and development of C. dimidiatus inside the fruit makes it necessary to implement efficient control methods that allow the harvesting of innocuous fruit for consumption.

Genetic diversity of sun poinsettia (Euphorbia spp.) in Morelos, Mexico, with RAPD molecular markers
Diversidad genética de nochebuena de sol (Euphorbia spp.) en Morelos, México, con marcadores moleculares RAPD
Dante Vladimir Galindo-García; Irán Alia-Tejacal; Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín; María Andrade-Rodríguez; Jaime Canul-Ku; Ma. Teresa Colinas-León; Manuel de Jesús Sainz-Aispuro

Received: 2018-06-24
Accepted: 2019-03-07
Available online: 2019-04-29 / pages 113-127
  • The poinsettia is an ornamental species native to Mexico, known and distributed worldwide, which has been bred to obtain the cultivars that currently adorn homes at Christmas. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Euphorbia spp., through RAPD molecular markers, in 35 genotypes collected in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The study included four sun poinsettia varieties registered in Mexico and one species of E. leucocephala Lotsy. Twenty-one primers of 10 random nucleotides were used, producing 91.82 % polymorphism, i.e. 203 polymorphic DNA fragments of 222 generated. From a cluster analysis a resampling test was carried out using the Jackknifing method with 1,000 replicates, forming seven consistent groups represented in a dendrogram. The accessions that presented different genetic fragments were PASCUA, ROSA, AMA 2, TVOL 2, JIU 1 and JIU 2, from Cuernavaca, Tetela del Volcán and Jiutepec, differentiated mainly by their habitat and bract color. The analyses conducted coincided in the clustering of accessions, separating E. leucocephala from E. pulcherrima because it is a different species. The results showed a wide genetic diversity of the materials collected in Morelos, with accessions of importance for future breeding studies

Weed control in husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)
Control de malezas en tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.)
Natanael Magaña-Lira; Aureliano Peña-Lomelí; Fernando Urzúa-Soria; Rafael Hernández-Antonio

Received: 2018-06-01
Accepted: 2019-04-06
Available online: 2019-04-29 / pages 129-139
  • Husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) is widely cultivated in Mexico. In general, weed control in this crop is done mechanically and manually, and despite its high cost little research has been conducted on the use of herbicides, although some are reported as selective for the species. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of three herbicides on yield and weed control in husk tomato. Manual weeding and the herbicides Bensulide (PREFAR 480-E®, 5.76 kgi.a.∙ha-1), Halosulfuron-methyl (SEMPRA 75 GD®, 75 gi.a.∙ha-1) and Isoxaflutole (PROVENCE 75 WG®, 112.5 gi.a.∙ha-1) were assessed. The crop was established in April 2016 by transplant with drip irrigation. A randomized complete block experimental design with 10 replicates was used. The herbicides Bensulide and Isoxaflutole were applied to weeds in pre-emergence, 10 days after transplant (dat), Halosulfuron-methyl was applied in post-emergence, 21 dat, and manual weeding was done at 21 and 44 dat. The highest total yield was obtained with Isoxaflutole (1.13 kg∙plant-1, 28.5 t∙ha-1), which was statistically the same as manual weeding and significantly better than Bensulide and Halosulfuron-methyl. Both Isoxaflutole and Bensulide were selective to husk tomato. Isoxaflutole did not control coco-grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.), but it did partially control chayotillo (Sicyos deppei G. Don). Halosulfuron-methyl was not selective, but it controlled coco-grass, so its application should be directed to the weed.

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