Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
Declaración de privacidad




Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Volume XIX, issue 3, September - December 2013


Claudia González-Salvatierra; Ernesto I. Badano; Joel Flores; Juan P. Rodas

Received: 10-07-2012

Accepted: 26-08-2013

Available online: / pages.351-362


picture_as_pdfDownload cloudxml picture_as_pdf View Online
  • descriptionAbstract

    White oaks have recalcitrant seeds that remain viable for short periods of time, but this information is still conspicuously lacking for Mexican oaks. This is the case of Quercus polymorpha, a drought-tolerant species widely distributed across Sierra Madre Oriental that can be used in forest restoration programs. The acorns used to develop their saplings are collected during the reproductive season and stored by several months before their germination. This study focused in 1) determining how many seeds are lost during storage because of physiological factors linked to their viability, 2) quantifying how many seeds were lost by other factors, and 3) assessing whether cold stratification can stimulate acorn germination. Acorns used in this study were stored during a round year. We found that 70 % of these acorns were parasitized by insects prior to their storage, while an additional 20 % had lost their viability due to physiological factors or fungal infestation. Germination trials were performed by only using potentially viable acorns, which were subjected to three different cold stratification periods (0, 20 and 50 days). This experiment indicated acorns stratified during 50 days display higher germination rates (64.2 %) than those stratified by 20 (44.8 %) and 0 days (16.5 %). 

    Keyworks: Cold stratification, seed parasitism, insects, fungi, viability tests.
  • beenhereReferences
    • Arriaga, V., Cervantes, V., & Vargas-Mena, A. (1994). Manual de reforestación con especies nativas: Colecta y preservación de semillas, propagación y manejo de plantas. México, D. F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-Instituto Nacional de Ecología.

    • Badano, E. I. (2011). Conservation and restoration of Mexican forests in the global change scenario: A shared responsibility with multiple benefits. Madera y Bosques, 17, 7–18.

    • Black, M., Bewley, J. D., & Halmer, P. (2006). The encyclopedia of seeds. Science, technology and uses. Wallingford: CAB International.

    • Bonner, F. T. (1996). Responses to drying of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus nigra L. Annals of Botany, 78(2), 181–187.

    • Branco, M., Branco, C., Merouani, H., & Almeida, M. H. (2002). Germination success, survival and seedling vigour of Quercus suber acorns in relation to insect damage. Forest Ecology and Management, 166(1), 159–164.

    • Castro-Colina, L., Martínez-Ramos, M., Sánchez-Coronado, M. E., Huante, P., Mendoza, A., & Orozco-Segovia, A. (2012). Effect of hydropriming and acclimation treatments on Quercus rugosa acorns and seedlings. European Journal of Forest Research, 131(3), 747–756.

    • Cibrián-Tovar, D., Mendez-Montiel, J. T., Campos-Bolaños, R., Yates III, H. O., & Flores-Lara, J. (1995). Insectos forestales de México. México: Universidad Autónoma Chapingo.

    • Csóka, G., & Hirka, A. (2006). Direct effects of carpophagous insects on the germination ability and early abscission of oak acorns. Acta Silvatica and Lignaria Hungarica, 2, 57– 68.

    • Díaz-Fleischer, F., Hernández-Arellano, V., Cano-Medina, T., Cervantes-Alday, R., & López-Ortega, M. (2010). Investigación preliminar de la depredación de semillas en la germinación de las bellotas de Quercus candicans Née. Agrociencia, 44(1), 83–92.

    • Díaz-Pontones, D., & Reyes-Jaramillo, I. (2009). Producción y almacenamiento de bellotas de Quercus hintonii Warburg (Fagaceae) de la Depresión del Balsas, México. Polibotánica, 27, 131–143.

    • Ellis, R. H., Hong, T. D., & Roberts, E. H. (1990). An intermediate category of seed storage behaviour? I. Coffee. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41(9), 1167–1174.

    • Flores-Cano, J., Badano, E. I., & Flores, J. (2012). Effects of burial depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of Mexican oaks: A glasshouse experiment. Archives of Biological Sciences, 64, 1543–1554.

    • García-Coll, I., Martínez-Otero, A., Ramírez-Soto, A., Niño-Cruz, A., Juan-Rivas, A., & Domínguez-Barrada, L. (2004). Larelación agua-bosque: Delimitación de zonas prioritarias para pago de servicios ambientales hidrológicos en la Cuenca del Río Gavilanes, Coatepec, Veracruz. In H. Cotler (Ed.), El manejo integral de cuencas en México: Estudios y reflexiones para orientar la política ambiental (pp. 99–114). México, D. F.: Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales/Instituto Nacional de Ecología.

    • Garwood, N. C., & Lighton, J. R. B. (1990). Physiological ecology of seed respiration in some tropical species. New Phytologist, 115(3), 549–558.

    • Gómez, J. M. (2004). Bigger is not always better: Conflicting selective pressures on seed size in Quercus ilex. Evolution 58, 71–80.

    • Gosling, P. G. (1989). The effect of drying Quercus robur acorns to different moisture contents, followed by storage, either with or without imbibitions. Forestry, 62(1), 41–50.

    • Guthke, J., & Spethmann, W. (1993). Physiological and pathological aspects of long-term storage of acorns. Annals of Forest Science, 50, 384s–387s.

    • Kaplan, E. L., & Meier, P. (1958). Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 457–481.

    • Kibinza, S., Bazin, J., Bailly, C., Farrant, J. M., Corbineau, F., & El- Maarouf-Bouteau, H. (2011). Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming. Plant Science, 181(3), 309–315.

    • Kolotelo, D., Steenis, V., Peterson, M., Bennett, R., Trotter, D., & Dennis, J. (2001). Seed handling guidebook. British Columbia, Canada: Ministry of Forest.

    • Lee, E. T. (1980). Statistical methods for survival data analysis. Belmont, CA, USA: Lifetime Learning Publications.

    • Lee, E. T., Desu, M. M., & Gehan, E. A. (1975). A Monte Carlo study of the power of some two-sample tests. Biometrika, 62(2), 425–432.

    • Martínez-Pérez, G., Orozco-Segovia, A., & Martorell, C. (2006).Efectividad de algunos tratamientos pre-germinativos para ocho especies leñosas de la Mixteca Alta Oaxaqueña con características relevantes para la restauración. Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México, 79, 9–20.

    • Návar-Cháidez, J. J. (2010). Los bosques templados del estado de Nuevo León: El manejo sustentable para bienes y servicios ambientales. Madera y Bosques, 16(1), 51–69.

    • Nixon, K. C. (1993a). Infrageneric classification of Quercus (Fagaceae) and typification of sectional names. Annals of Forest Science, 50(1), 25s–34s.

    • Nixon, K. C. (1993b). The genus Quercus in México. In T. P. Ramamoorthy, R. Bye, A. Lot, & J. Fa (Eds.), Biological diversity of Mexico: Origins and distribution (pp. 447–548). New York, USA: Oxford University Press.

    • Pardos, J. A. (2000). Fisiología vegetal aplicada a especies forestales. Madrid, España: Fundación Conde del Valle de Salazar.

    • Peterson, J. K. (1983). Mechanisms involved in delayed germination of Quercus nigra L. seeds. Annals of Botany, 52(1), 81–92.

    • Pritchard, H. W. (1991). Water potential and embryonic axis viability in recalcitrant seeds of Quercus rubra. Annals of Botany, 67(1), 43–49.

    • Sáenz-Romero, C. (2003). Alternatives for improving reforestation in México. In Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Ed.), XII World Forestry Congress. Rome, Italy.

    • Sáenz-Romero, C., & Lindig-Cisneros, R. (2004). Evaluación y propuestas para el programa de reforestación en Michoacán, México. Ciencia Nicolaíta, 37, 107–122.

    • Simpson, B. J., Karges, J. P., & Carpenter, J. M. (1992). Quercus polymorpha (Fagaceae) new to Texas and The United States. Sida, 15(1), 153.

    • Vázquez-Yanes, C., & Orozco-Segovia, A. (1990). Seed dormancy in the tropical rain forest. In K. S. Bawa, & M. Hadley (Eds.), Reproductive biology of tropical plants (pp. 247–590). Carnforth, UK: UNESCO-Parthenon Publishing.

    • Vogt, A. R. (1974). Physiological importance of changes in endogenous hormones during red oak acorn stratification. Forest Science, 20(2), 187–191.

    • Willan, R. L. (1991). Guía para la manipulación de semillas forestales-Estudio FAO Montes 20/2. Roma, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization.

    • Zavala-Chávez, F. (2001). Introducción a la ecología de la regeneración natural de encinos. México: Universidad Autónoma Chapingo.

    • Zavala-Chávez, F. (2004). Desecación de bellotas y su relación con la viabilidad y germinación en nueve especies de encinos mexicanos. Ciencia Ergo Sum, 11(2), 177–185.

    • Zavala-Chávez, F., & García, E. (1996). Frutas y semillas de encinos. México: Universidad Autónoma Chapingo.

    • Zar, J. H. (2010). Biostatistical analysis. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.

  • starCite article

    González-Salvatierra, C., Badano, E. I.,  Flores, J., &  Rodas, J. P. (2013).  GERMINATION, INFESTATION, AND VIABILITY IN ACORNS OF Quercus polymorpha (Schltdl. & Cham.) AFTER 1-YEAR STORAGE. Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, XIX(3), 351-362.